“On the Day of Resurrection Allah will most certainly judge between those who believe, and those who became Jews, and the Sabaeans, and Christians, and Magians, and those who associate others with Allah in His Divinity. Surely Allah watches over everything.”
(Al-Qur’ān – 22:17)
‘Those who believe’ refers to all Muslims: that is, to those Muslims before the advent of the Prophet ﷺ who believed in the Messengers and Scriptures of their respective times, as well as to those who, in the days of Prophet Muhammad, believed in him in addition to believing in the earlier Messengers. These believers include those who are sincere in faith, as well as those on the periphery who waver between belief and unbelief.
There were two communities known as Sabaens. One of them inhabited the upper region of Iraq called al-Jazirah. They practised baptism according to the way of Prophet John. The other community inhabiting different parts of Iraq consisted of star-worshippers who claimed to follow the religion of the Prophets Shīth and Idrīs. They believed that the planets held ascendency over the elements, and that the angels had ascendancy over the planets.
The differences of opinion among the various communities concerning God will not be definitively resolved in the present world. It can only be settled for good on the Day of Judgement. It is then that it will be decided beyond all doubt as to who is in error and who is in the right. In a sense, the Scriptures have already decided this question in the present world.