“Tā. Sīn. Mīm. These are the verses of the clear Book. We recount to you with truth some parts of the story of Moses and Pharaoh for the benefit of those who believe. Indeed Pharaoh transgressed in the land and divided its people into sections. One group of them he humiliated, and slayed their sons and spared their daughters. Truly he was among the mischief makers.”
(Al-Qur’ān – 28:1-4)
The Qur’ān will be of benefit to those who are inclined to consider the call to the Truth with an open mind. The words ‘alā fī al-arḍ mean Pharaoh became vain and headstrong and began to transgress. Not satisfied with his true position as a servant of God – he became haughty, virtually planting himself on God’s throne, opposing people and ruling over them with tyranny.
Pharaoh did not rule over his subjects with an even hand, giving equal rights to all; instead, he divided his subjects into various groups. He gave more rights and powers to some and enslaved, crushed and exploited others.
An objection can be raised here, viz. that even an Islamic state differentiates between Muslims and dhimmīs, and does not grant both equal rights. This is an invalid objection because in the case of an Islamic state the distinction between the two groups is not on the basis of race, colour, language or social status, but on the basis of worldview and principles. In the Islamic system of governance, there is no difference between Muslims and dhimmīs as far as legal rights are concerned.

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